This is one of those expressions that has acquired idiomatic status in English from or through the KJV. It continues to have an active life today, used by many who probably have no idea of its Biblical lineage. There is nothing new, either, about the risque second meaning of ‘pricks’, since this existed in the 16th century and did not inhibit the King James translators.
The expression has shown itself highly adaptable: it has been used of the stock exchange, in footballing contexts (it could be applied to women footballers playing against men); variant forms include “kicking against the prickles” (used of a weed-clearing exercise in Australia) and “kicking against the prigs” (in a context of narrow religious attitudes). (See David Crystal’s Begat for more.) In most modern translations the expression does not occur until Acts 26:14, where the word ‘goads’ usually replaces the KJV’s more forthright term.